In addition to disclosing results determined in accordance with U.S. GAAP, Nasdaq also discloses certain non-GAAP results of operations, including, but not limited to, net income attributable to Nasdaq, diluted earnings per share, and operating income, that include certain adjustments or exclude certain charges and gains that are described in the reconciliation table of U.S. GAAP to non-GAAP information provided in this communication.  Management uses this non-GAAP information internally, along with U.S. GAAP information, in evaluating our performance and in making financial and operational decisions. We believe our presentation of these measures provides investors with greater transparency and supplemental data relating to our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we believe the presentation of these measures is useful to investors for period-to-period comparisons of results as the items described below do not reflect ongoing operating performance.

These measures are not in accordance with, or an alternative to, U.S. GAAP, and may be different from non-GAAP measures used by other companies. Investors should not rely on any single financial measure when evaluating our business. We recommend investors review the U.S. GAAP financial measures included in our 2016 Annual Report on Form 10-K including our consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto. When viewed in conjunction with our U.S. GAAP results and the accompanying reconciliations, we believe these non-GAAP measures provide greater transparency and a more complete understanding of factors affecting our business than U.S. GAAP measures alone.

We understand that analysts and investors regularly rely on non-GAAP financial measures, such as non-GAAP net income attributable to Nasdaq, non-GAAP diluted earnings per share, and non-GAAP operating income to assess operating performance. We use these measures because they highlight trends more clearly in our business that may not otherwise be apparent when relying solely on U.S. GAAP financial measures, since these measures eliminate from our results specific financial items, such as those described below, that have less bearing on our ongoing operating performance.

Amortization expense of acquired intangible assets: We amortize intangible assets acquired in connection with various acquisitions. Intangible asset amortization expense can vary from period to period due to episodic acquisitions completed, rather than from our ongoing business operations. As such, if intangible asset amortization is included in performance measures, it is more difficult to assess the day-to-day operating performance of the businesses, the relative operating performance of the businesses between periods and the earnings power of Nasdaq. Management does not consider intangible asset amortization expense for the purpose of evaluating the performance of our business or its managers or when making decisions to allocate resources. Therefore, we believe performance measures excluding intangible asset amortization expense provide investors with a more useful representation of our businesses’ ongoing activity in each period.

Restructuring charges: Restructuring charges are associated with our 2015 restructuring plan to improve performance, cut costs and reduce spending and are primarily related to (i) the rebranding of our company name from The NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. to Nasdaq, Inc., (ii) severance and other termination benefits, (iii) costs to vacate duplicate facilities, and (iv) asset impairment charges. We exclude these restructuring costs because these costs do not reflect future operating expenses and do not contribute to a meaningful evaluation of Nasdaq’s ongoing operating performance or comparison of Nasdaq’s performance between periods.

Merger and strategic initiatives expense: We have pursued various strategic initiatives and completed a number of acquisitions in recent years which have resulted in expenses which would not have otherwise been incurred. These expenses include integration costs, as well as legal, due diligence and other third party transaction costs. The frequency and the amount of such expenses vary significantly based on the size, timing and complexity of the transaction. Accordingly, we exclude these costs for purposes of calculating non-GAAP measures which provide a more meaningful analysis of Nasdaq’s ongoing operating performance or comparisons in Nasdaq’s performance between periods.

Asset impairment charges: Intangible assets that have indefinite lives are reviewed for impairment at least annually, or when indicators of impairment are present. For the year ended December 31, 2016, we recorded a pre-tax, non-cash asset impairment charge of $578 million related to a trade name. The impairment charge was the result of a decline in operating performance and the rebranding of the trade name due to a strategic change in the direction of our Fixed Income business.

Other significant items: We have excluded certain other charges or gains that are the result of other non-comparable events to measure operating performance. For 2016, other significant items primarily included accelerated expense due to the retirement of the company’s former CEO for equity awards previously granted, a regulatory fine received by our exchange in Stockholm and Nasdaq Clearing, the release of a sublease loss reserve due to the early exit of a facility, and the impact of the write-off of an equity method investment, partially offset by a gain resulting from the sale of a percentage of a separate equity method investment. For 2015, other significant items included income from our equity investment in The Options Clearing Corporation, or OCC, where we were not able to determine what our share of OCC’s income was for the year ended December 31, 2014 until the first quarter of 2015, when financial statements were made available to us. As a result, we recorded other income in the first quarter of 2015 relating to our share of OCC’s income for the year ended December 31, 2014. Significant adjustments also included the reversal of a value added tax refund.

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